Lepista sublilacina- (Australian blewit)

Lepista sublilacina once called Tricholoma sublilacina was listed in 1980 as a native blewit and favoured by the Cribbs in their book Wild Food in Australia. Occurring in Autumn and quite often in rings.  Distribution Qld, NSW, Vic, SA.

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Above- The brilliant lilac colour emerges through the lawn. There is an umbo.

Lepista sublilacina

Above- young to mature, the colour eventually fades becoming pale. The caps margin is inrolled when young, unfurling and lifting upwards often becoming wavy and irregular into maturity. The gills attach to the stem. No ring or veil.

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Above- Spore print pale pink.

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Above- Stem butts collected for cultivation.

Ref. Wild Food in Australia- A.B & J.W Cribb

The closely related Lepista sordida is available for cultivation from Selby Shrooms

Video link

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Stinky Agaricus xanthodermus, rotalis, praeclaresquamosus, moelleri,

These Agaricus species are known to cause stomach upsets, the common theme is the stench from the base of the stem when crushed and instant chrome yellow oxidation particularly the stem butt.  For those without a sense of smell there are chemical tests that can be used. I have not tried this as my sense of smell and taste are attuned to Agaricus.

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Agaricus xanthodermus Sunshine Coast

 

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Agaricus xanthodermus Tasmania

 

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Agaricus xanthodermus Tasmania

 

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Agaricus moelleri Sydney

 

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Agaricus moelleri Sydney

 

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Agaricus moelleri Sydney

 

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Agaricus rotalis

 

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Agaricus rotalis

 

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Agaricus rotalis

 

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Agaricus aff. praeclaresquamosus Tasmania

 

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Agaricus aff. praeclaresquamosus Sunshine Coast

 

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Agaricus aff. praeclaresquamosus Sunshine Coast

 

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Agaricus aff. praeclaresquamosus Sunshine Coast

 

Agaricus of Australia

I always remember visiting my Uncle George on a sheep property when I was a boy and the introduction to dinner plate size Agaricus with freshly caught trout. Looking back it seemed my mother and grandmother’s generation new enough about wild mushrooms and had the confidence to put them on the table.  I rediscovered this kind of culture on a recent trip to Tasmania. Even the elderly folk were out combing the fields.

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Collecting field mushrooms Tasmania

After Tasmania I headed to the South Coast of Sydney for the Australian Fungi Conference for about half an hour before being told to shut up and that Edibility is not a topic of conversation and neither was Poisonous mushrooms. Wow! I really couldn’t relate but it reminded me of a word David Arora uses Fungaphobia.  I did receive an apology from a Toxicologist who has offered DNA testing for Agaricus species.

Agaricus are quite common, packed with flavour good texture and at times more than you can eat. Part of the genus is not edible, causing stomach upsets and known as Xanthodermus Group. Typically bruising crome yellow when the stem base is rubbed/crushed and stinking of phenol (a disinfectant like smell) , The common name is yellow stainers but that name is confusing because many good eating Agaricus bruise yellow or gold. There are three other distinct smells, mushroomy as in the shop mushroom Agaricus bisporus, sweet almond as Agaricus arvensis, Marzipan as in Agaricus subrufscens group. The smells are heightened when heated.

Agaricus of the Sunshine Coast

The below picture is an Agaricus of medium size, the stem base does not bruise when rubbed and is often buried deep. The stem oxidises orange-gold when cut and rubbed. The stem is notably frilly. The Gills are pink before veil burst turning chocolate brown. The cap gets a golden hue when sun exposed. Growing under Casuarina.

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Agaricus Sunshine Coast

Below is a Forest Agaricus occurring close to the beach. The fragrance is sweet almond. The fibrils are concentrated in the centre and golden brown in colour. Smaller up to 10cm diameter.

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Agaricus Sunshine Coast

Agaricus arvensis (below) is well known being one of the few edible Agaricus species that turns up in Australian literature. having a golden hue, smelling of sweet almond and tasting delicious. Video Link

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Agaricus arvensis Sunshine Coast

Agaricus campestris Video Link

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Agaricus campestris Sunshine Coast

Agaricus in Tasmania

Below two pictures are Agaricus aff crocidilensis growing along the coastal areas. Large meaty and flavorsome. The initial smell is pungent but when the cap margin is rubbed it turns golden and releases a sweet almond smell.

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Agaricus aff crocidilensis

 

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Agaricus aff crocidilensis Coastal Tasmania

 

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Agaricus campestris Tasmania

Below is an Agaricus with distinct brown patterns covering the cap. Common around sports fields and parks.

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Agaricus Field Tasmania

Bellow two pictures are Larger Agaricus of Tasmania. Texture firm, flavour mushroomy. There is some evidence of fibrils in the cap centre. No bruising or colour changes. The gills are pale when young becoming chocolate brown.

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Agaricus Tasmania

 

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Agaricus Tasmania

Below is a Forest Agaricus with frilly stem, gills pale when young. I have not eaten this species and include it here out of interest.

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Agaricus Forest Tasmania

Below is a larger Agaricus growing in lawn clippings on the drip line of an unknown Conifer. The cap margin when rubbed smells of sweet almond. The gills are pale before veil burst then grey into chocolate brown. The cap fibrils are more of a maroon-pinkish colour. In a field guide to Tasmanian fungi this species possibly matches Agaricus marzipan.

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Agaricus Lawn clippings Tasmania

Agaricus austrovinaceus (below) An Australian species Austro and vinaceus in reference to the wine red colour.  This species is found generally in Forest or Forest edges.

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Agaricus austrovinaceus Forest Tasmania

The below two pictures are forest Agaricus that turn golden with handling, the smell is sweet almond.

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Agaricus Forest Tasmania

 

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Agaricus Forest Tasmania

Agaricus of Sydney

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Agaricus Pine Forest Blue Mountains

 

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Agaricus Pine Forest Blue Mountains

 

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Agaricus Pine Forest

The below two pictures are of an Agaricus that smells strongly of Marzipan when the stem base is rubbed. The flavour is intensely Marzipan.  Video Link

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Agaricus subrufscens grp

 

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Agaricus subrufscens grp

The below two pictures are an Agaricus which bruises gold and smells of sweet almond. Video Link

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Agaricus arrillagarum Field Coastal Sydney

 

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Agaricus arrillagarum Field Coastal Sydney

Southern Highlands Sydney– (below) a mushroom with the characteristics of Agaricus arvensis but differing in size and stature from the Queensland species.

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Agaricus arvensis grp

Agaricus of Sydney growing under Casuarina Sydney- (below) this species is similar to a new species found in South America which is temporarily placed in the subrufescens group.  Subrufescens- becoming reddish. Video Link

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Agaricus subrufscens grp

 

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Agaricus subrufescens grp

The below two pictures are an Agaricus species found under Casuarina with a stem that bruises yellow then orange then red. The caps flesh bruises reddish on cutting. The stem is smooth above and below the ring. Cap with brown fibrils concentrated in the centre and radiating out on maturity.

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Agaricus Casuarina Redening

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The below three pictures are an Agaricus found around Casuarina trees in parks and Sports fields of Sydney. The caps fibrils have a maroon  tinge. The stem is smooth and hollow when mature, the cell wall is tough when mature. The stem base does not bruise or smell significantly. Internally there is no colour oxidations on cutting. There can be a golden hue in later maturity.

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Agaricus Casuarina Sydney

 

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Agaricus Casuarina Sydney

 

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Agaricus Casuarina Sydney

Below three pictures are characteristic of Agaricus bitorquis growing under Casuarina, maturing partly submerged. The gills are reddish-pink before veil burst. The name bitorquis means double collared. The veil is sheathing.

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Agaricus Casuarina Sydney

 

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Agaricus Casuarina Sydney

 

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Agaricus Casuarina Sydney

The below Agaricus species was found in the Southern Highlands. They appeared to be submerged growing in a park with mixed trees. The texture was good and nice flavour.

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Agaricus Southern Highlands Sydney

Agaricus of Western Australia

Agaricus of Victoria

Marasmius oreades- (Fairy-ring mushroom)

Marasmius oreades can forms large Fairy Rings, creating contemporary designs. This mushroom requires a High Level of Identification Knowledge as there are countless little brown mushrooms of unknown Toxicology.

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Marasmius oreades

The habitat is sports fields, grasslands and parks. Marasmius oreades is more common in the Temperate regions of Australia and regarded highly in many Temperate countries of the world.

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Marasmius oreades

The cap has a nipple shape being more pronounced when young, but retaining an umbo as the cap matures.

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Marasmius oreades

The gills are quite deep and are off-white to cream and have wide spacing which are important characteristics along with the white spore print. Equally important is that the gills do not run down the stem.

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Marasmius oreades, pliable stem.

The tough pliable stem is one of the key characteristics for Marasmius oreades.

There is no ring on the stem, and the stem is usually stuffed with a white pith.

Macrolepiota dolichaula- (White Parasol)

In a field guide to Australian fungi, A.M Young makes mention of these mushrooms being eaten in Australia by some and others receiving stomach upsets. It is also found and eaten in India,China and North Thailand. I never thought a toadstool could taste so good, really nice texture and abundant in grazing pastures, they are pungent  fresh, have white spores, sliding ring, tall, standing out from hundreds of metres away, much taller than the poisonous green spored Chlorophyllum molybdites.

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Cap 6-16cm diameter though up to dinner plate size is not uncommon. Light brown centre of concentrated scales radiating out and dispersing.

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Stem 7-24cm 0.6- 2.5cm hollow, easily snapped. stem base slightly bulbous. A similar looking species Chlorophyllum hortense can be found growing at the same time but it’s stem reddens with bruising or when cut.

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Gills free from stem, closely stacked. Gills white to cream on maturity. Margin bearing remnants of veil. Ring whitish, membranous.

 

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M. dolichaula stands out from other Macrolepiota by the height & diameter.

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October through to June Blue Mountains to far North Qld.

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If in doubt through it out, these mushrooms need cooking on high heat in an open pan to reduce the risk of gastro-intestinal upsets.

Look-alikes include Chlorophyllum hortense, Chlorophyllum molybdites and where Eucalyptus border paddocks the white gilled Amanita pyramidifera can appear similar especially if the pyramids on the cap have washed out. A. pyramidifera lacks the thin walled hollow stalk of M.dolichaula.

M.dolichaula is eaten in India, China, North Thailand.

NUTRITIONAL AND NUTRACEUTICAL POTENTIAL OF WILD EDIBLE MACROLEPIOTOID MUSHROOMS OF NORTH INDIA

Coprinus comatus- (Shaggy Mane)

Coprinus comatus the Shaggy Mane, common edible of the Temperate regions found in many countries. They have a short shelf life, so best cooked fresh when found. The following recipe utilizes another common edible Marasmius oreades, cooked with Coprinus comatus,, both found fruiting in similar environments around the same time.

Recipe by Paul Stamets

Coprinus comatus

Coprinus comatus Tasmania

Could be confused with the Green Spored Parasol during it’s immature stage, but the Coprinus comatus liquefies black on maturity.

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Opening up like umbrellas.

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Margin starts to roll up and liquefy.

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Coprinus comatus turning to ink.

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Cap margin has rolled all the way up.

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Cap margin rolls up.